Review waste animal bones as catalysts for biodiesel production; a mini review


Hussain F., Alshahrani S., Abbas M.M., Khan H.M., Jamil A., Yaqoob H., Soudagar M.E.M., Imran M., Ahmad M., Munir M.

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Slaughterhouse waste is considered to be an emerging issue because of its disposal cost. As an alternative, it would be a great prospect for the bioeconomy society to explore new usages of these leftover materials. As per food safety rules mentioned by EU legislation, all bone waste generated by slaughterhouses ought to be disposed of by rendering. The huge quantity of worldwide bone waste generation (130 billion kilograms per annum) is an environmental burden if not properly managed. The waste animal bones can be efficiently employed as a heterogeneous catalyst to produce biodiesel. This mini review summarized the recent literature reported for biodiesel generation using waste animal bones derived heterogeneous catalyst. It discusses the sources of bone waste, catalyst preparation methods, particularly calcination and its effects, and important characteristics of bones derived catalyst. It suggests that catalysts extracted from waste animal bones have suitable catalytic activity in transesterification of different oil sources to generate a good quality biodiesel.