Chromium is an insidious ecological pollutant that is of huge value for its toxicity. The existing ecological objective to lower the heights of toxic materials in marine systems and to stimulate the existing water to recycle after suitable treatment of wastewater. Chromium is a hazard element that appears in discharges of numerous industries that must be diminished to accomplish the goals. Nearly all of the findings described in the literature related to the usage of various materials such as fungal, algal, bacterial biomass, and nanomaterials for chromium adsorption. The current work evaluates the findings of research commenced in the preceding on the use of a variety of adsorbents to decrease chromium concentrations in contaminated waters. This review article focuses on the issue of chromium contamination, its chemistry, causes, consequences, biological agent remediation techniques, and the detailed process of chromium detoxification in microbial cells. It also lists a description of the in situ and ex situ chromium bioremediation methods used. This can help design more effective Cr(VI) removal methods, thus bridging the difference between laboratory discoveries and industrial chromium remediation applications.