Antimonotonicity, Bifurcation and Multistability in the Vallis Model for El Niño


Rajagopal K., Jafari S., Pham V.-T., Wei Z., Premraj D., Thamilmaran K., Karthikeyan A.

Source title

International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos

Publication year

In this paper, the well-known Vallis model for El Niño is analyzed for the parameter condition P≠0. The conditions for the stability of the equilibrium points are derived. The condition for Hopf bifurcation occurring in the system for P=0 and P≠0 are investigated. The multistability feature of the Vallis model when P≠0  is explained with forward and backward continuation bifurcation plots and with the coexisting attractors. The creation of period doubling followed by their annihilation via inverse period-doubling bifurcation known as antimonotonicity occurrence in the Vallis model for P≠0  is presented for the first time in the literature.