Eurasip Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking
This paper studies the cognitive wireless powered device-to-device (D2D) communication underlaying a cellular network, where there are two types of communications, including peer-to-peer (P2P) communication and a multi-hop D2D communication, which are assumed to be affected by hardware impairments (HWIs). We investigate the one-hop P2P communication and the multi-hop D2D communication, where the relay node helps other two user equipments (UEs) exchange information with a two-time-slot physical-layer network coding scheme. To examine the system performance, we derive closed-form expressions for the average energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE). Besides that, we also obtain the successful transmission probability (STP) for the two considered communications, and the optimal values of time switching (TS) and power splitting (PS) ratios are achieved with the help of a genetic algorithm (GA)-based optimization algorithm in our proposed energy harvesting (EH) protocol so-called Hybrid TS-PS (HTPS) relaying protocol. Comparisons between amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) transmission schemes are provided. The simulation results give evidence that the STP is significantly improved regardless of the presence of HWIs thanks to the derived parameters, i.e., average EE, SE, and the optimal TS and PS ratios.